By Geoffrey Wawro
The Austro-Hungarian military that marched east and south to confront the Russians and Serbs within the establishing campaigns of global battle I had an excellent earlier yet a pitiful current. conversing a mystifying array of languages and lugging superseded guns, the Austrian troops have been hopelessly unprepared for the industrialized battle that may almost immediately devour Europe.
As prizewinning historian Geoffrey Wawro explains in A Mad Catastrophe, the doomed Austrian conscripts have been an unlucky microcosm of the Austro-Hungarian Empire itself—both both ripe for destruction. After the assassination of the Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand in June 1914, Germany goaded the Empire right into a struggle with Russia and Serbia. With the Germans massing their forces within the west to have interaction the French and the British, everything—the process the battle and the destiny of empires and alliances from Constantinople to London—hinged at the Habsburgs’ skill to overwhelm Serbia and continue the Russians at bay. in spite of the fact that, Austria-Hungary have been rotting from inside of for years, hollowed out through repression, cynicism, and corruption on the maximum degrees. Commanded by means of a loss of life emperor, Franz Joseph I, and a querulous big name basic, Conrad von Hötzendorf, the Austro-Hungarians controlled to bungle every thing: their ultimatum to the Serbs, their declarations of warfare, their mobilization, and the pivotal battles in Galicia and Serbia. through the top of 1914, the Habsburg military lay in ruins and the result of the warfare appeared all yet made up our minds.
Drawing on deep archival study, Wawro charts the decline of the Empire sooner than the struggle and reconstructs the nice battles within the east and the Balkans in exciting and tragic element. A Mad Catastrophe is a riveting account of a missed face of global struggle I, revealing how a once-mighty empire collapsed within the trenches of Serbia and the jap entrance, altering the process eu heritage.
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Additional resources for A Mad Catastrophe: The Outbreak of World War I and the Collapse of the Habsburg Empire
New York World, 11 J u n e 1916, quoted in Pinchot's History, ed. Hooker, p . 3 8 . A Preface to Politics (New York, 1913), p . 2 2 9 . "The Editor as Schoolmaster," Independent 79 (3 A u g . 1914), p . 169. Croly to Frankfurter, [4 Sept. 1914}, file 0 0 0 9 2 0 , box 50, Felix Frankfurter Papers. Frankfurter, of course, did come to have close links with the New Republic, wrote often for it, and was in frequent contact with the editors, particularly Lippmann. By precept as well as example, Croly had stressed the importance of the critic, not least the social critic, in The Promise of American Life (New York, 1909).
Weyl's dissertation, published as The Traffic of Railways, illustrated his skill in handling statistics, but upon its completion in 1897, he deliberately rejected an academic career. Instead, he chose to study social and economic conditions as a freelance, with an interest both theoretical and engaged. S. Bureau of Labor in France and Puerto Rico, assisted John Mitchell of the United Mine Workers in the arbitration proceedings following the 1902 coal strike, and lived for some years in University Settlement, New York.
The presidential campaign, unhappily, split our movement wide-open," wrote Creel of the situation in Colorado. " 2 9 Immediately after the election he urged Wilson to seek the support of Bull Moose Progressives rather than conservative Democrats. 30 In choosing sides in 1912, most of these publicists seem to have been more influenced by traditional party loyalties or their reactions to the personalities of the two candidates than by the ideological differences between the New Freedom and the New Nationalism — both Baker and Amos Pinchot, for example, ended up in the wrong camp in terms of their views on the trust issue.