Introduction

An Introduction to Equilibrium Thermodynamics by Bernard Morrill

By Bernard Morrill

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O n e can d o this b e c a u s e t h e r m o d y n a m i c properties are point functions and are independent of path. W e need only to invent (mentally) a reversible process that will pass through state 1 and state 2 in place of the actual irreversible p r o c e s s . Such an invention is valid as long as w e are dealing with properties. It is impossible to invent a reversible process to replace an irreversible process if work and/or heat transferred during the process is to be calculated. T h e adiabatic perfect gas equation as given by Eq.

T h e net w o r k of the entire cycle is the sum of the heat transfers Qx and Q2. T h e heat supplied to the engine during the cycle is Qx. T h e n * - % ϊ · Ρ 1 5 2) · T h e absolute values of the heat transfers are used to r e m o v e sign ambiguity. T h e C a r n o t thermal efficiency, then, is the ratio of the net heat transfer to the engine to the heat transfer to the engine from the heat source. Let the working fluid in the C a r n o t engine be a perfect gas. Since the heat transfers are both e x e c u t e d during a reversible isothermal p r o c e s s , the change of internal energy during each of these heat transfer processes must be zero.

W e therefore find that A = - - R T h e current is / T o find the w o r k w e substitute / ( / ) into E q . 30). 2 W = - [iLI (t) + f P{t)Rdt] -H^('--[-B" /o^( - [-f ] hf']W +R | 2exp , +exp U p o n integration and simplification, we get W = ^jjrj^l τ - exp [ ~ χ ] ) _ j R r ] ' joules w h e r e τ is in seconds, V* is in volts, L is in volt-sec/ampere, and R is in volt/ampere. A s τ b e c o m e s very large, the work b e c o m e s T/*2 W = y r ( L - Rr), joules Non-Mechanical Work 55 (d) Work Due to Magnetism (Paramagnetic Material) T h e subject of magnetism is a very complex o n e and a full discussion is beyond the scope of this text.

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